Milk production in humans and economically-important animals such as dairy cattle are very similar processes. Viral infections impact the nutritional content of the milk, can lead to offspring morbidity, and can cause mastitis both directly and indirectly. This has significant personal, societal and economic impact with both human breastfeeding and in dairy cows. We need to better understand viral secretion in breastmilk by investigating correlations in mastitis, viral loads (focusing on herpesviruses) and milk components. This will enable development of new interventions without compromising essential nutritional and immunological benefits of breastfeeding or dairy productivity.
1. Andreas NJ, Kampmann B, Mehring Le-Doare K (2015) Human breast milk: a review on its composition and bioactivity. J Early Human Dev 91:629-35
2. Musonda KG, Nyonda M, Filteau S, Kasonka L, Monze M, Gompels UA (2016) Increased cytomegalovirus secretion and risks of infant infection by breastfeeding duration from maternal human immunodeficiency virus positive compared to negative mothers in sub-Saharan Africa. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 5:138-46
3. Wellenberg GJ, van der Poel WHM, Van Oirschot JT (2002) Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review. Vet. Microbiol. 88:27-45
4. Slyker JA et al (2013) Clinical and virologic manifestations of primary Epstein-Barr virus infection in Kenyan infants born to HIV-infected women. J Infect Dis 207:1798-1806
5. Wathes DC, Oguejiofor CF, Thomas C, Cheng Z (2020) Importance of viral disease in dairy cow fertility. Engineering 6(1):26-33
6. Buggiotti L, Cheng Z, Wathes DC, GplusE Consortium (2020) Mining the unmapped reads in bovine RNA-Seq data reveals the prevalence of bovine herpes virus-6 in European dairy cows and the associated changes in their phenotype and leucocyte transcriptome. Viruses. 12(12):1451