Mosquito-borne diseases are a major challenge for public health. Malaria, caused by parasites transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes, was responsible for 435 000 deaths in 2017. Arboviruses, such as Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya transmitted by Aedes mosquitos, are causing major outbreaks around the world. Insecticide resistance, with its genetic underpinning, has increased rapidly in prevalence and threatens vector control. Similarly, mutations in pathogens can lead to drug-resistance and adaptation to new vectors, affecting disease control. Genomics can be used to investigate changes in the genetic diversity of both mosquitos and pathogens and increase knowledge of their biology and evolution.
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