The skeleton is remodelled throughout life with older tissue being replaced by new cells. This constant turnover enables bone to respond to exercise and increase in size and density, while under reduced load bone mass is lost. Imbalance in the turnover of bone is the basis of diseases such as osteoporosis.
The periosteum, a thin layer of cells surrounding the outer surface of bone, is one source of tissue-resident stem cells that generates bone progenitors during bone homeostasis. The mechanisms by which periosteal cells respond to biomechanical stimuli is not known, nor is it understood why this declines with age.
Logan, M., et al., Expression of Cre Recombinase in the developing mouse limb bud driven by a Prxl enhancer. Genesis, 2002. 33(2): p. 77-80.
Kawanami, A., et al., Mice expressing GFP and CreER in osteochondro progenitor cells in the periosteum. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2009. 386(3): p. 477-82.
Roberts, S.J., et al., Uncovering the periosteum for skeletal regeneration: the stem cell that lies beneath. Bone, 2015. 70: p. 10-8.
Javaheri, B., et al., In vivo Models of mechanical loading. Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1914:369-390
Javaheri, B., et al., Transient peak-strain matching partially recovers the age-impaired mechanoadaptive cortical bone response SCi Rep. 2018 27; 8(1):6636
de Souza, RL, Matsuura M, Eckstein F, Rawlinson SCF, Lanyon L & Pitsillides AA. (2005) Non-invasive model of axial loading of the mouse tibia discloses load-induced increases in cortical bone formation and modification in trabecular bone organisation. Bone 37(6):810-8